A previously developed kinetic model  was modified to predict the performance of cellulases on steam pre-treated wheat straw, and to decide when and how much WIS to feed in the next feeding event. With this approach, mixing problems could be completely avoided up to 22.2% WIS in lab scale stirred tank reactors, and ethanol concentrations reached 56 g/L within 72 hours of SSCF. The process was tested at demonstration scale in 10 m3 reactors, and a similar fermentation performance as that in lab scale was observed.
Further feeding of solid substrate (>20% WIS) did not lead to increases in the ethanol concentration, while a substantial loss of yeast viability (colony forming unit) were observed in SSCF medium at high WIS contents. This was likely due to toxic compounds retained in the pre-treated lignocellulose. We are currently investigating different xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the SSCF process to increase the ethanol titer further.
 Wang et al. Bioresour. Technol., 2014