Two stage pretreatment of empty fruit bunches (EFB) with acetic acid and aqueous ammonia for the enzymatic hydrolysis
Monday, April 28, 2014
Exhibit/Poster Hall, lower level (Hilton Clearwater Beach)
Dong Young Kim1, Hyun Jin Ryu2 and Kyeong Keun Oh2, (1)Applied Chemical engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea, (2)Applied Chemical Egnieering, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea
Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are the main waste products of the palm oil processing industry. Every year 14.9 and 37.7 million tons of EFB are produced in Malaysia and worldwide, respectively. Since the bunches are rich in cellulose and hemicellulose that are not easily digested, they are considered to be one of the most abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks available for the production of biofuels. Pretreatment is necessary for reducing the hemicellulose and lignin contents in EFB for effective bioethanol fermentation. Several studies have evaluated the effects of some pretreatment processes, such as alkaline pretreatment, aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment, and sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali on enzymatic digestibility of EFB. However, to obtain high glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage and minimizing the sugar loss by decomposition process, an effective pretreatment process still needs to be investigated to fulfill the biorefinery of EFB. In this study, The sequencial two stage process with combination of CH3COOH and NH4OH was performed to increase the fraction of cellulose per unit raw EFB. The pretreatment procedure consisted of a CH3COOH treatment as the first step to extract hemicellulose fraction and then NH4OH treatment as a second step to eliminate lignin from EFB. Unique process above mentioned has been evaluated on reducing non-fermentable components, but also on enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis due to changed compositional structure in EFB.